Dean Skelos Albany Senate Leader Aided Son at All Costs U S Says
"Larangan" Saat Memuji Anak
Indonesia.com - "Kita harus mengakui, anak selalu berupaya keras mendorong diri
mereka dan bekerja keras untuk mencapai tujuan," kata Paul Donahue, PhD, penulis buku
Parenting Without Fear: Letting Go of Worry and Focusing on What Really
Matters. Jadi, "Satu hal yang perlu diingat adalah proses, bukan produk
Anak Anda mungkin bukan pemain basket terbaik di timnya. Namun jika Anda
melihat ia berlatih setiap hari dan berjuang untuk bisa menjadi yang terbaik, Anda harus memuji
usahanya itu, terlepas dari apakah timnya menang atau kalah.
Memuji usaha anak, bukan
hasilnya, juga bisa berarti mengakui anak telah bekerja keras. Misalnya saja saat ia
membersihkan halaman, memasak makan malam, atau menyelesaikan tugas pelajaran sejarahnya. Apa
pun skenarionya, pujian harus diberikan berdasarkan kasus per kasus dan proporsional.
Berikut ini beberapa contoh nyata dari para ahli yang menunjukkan pujian atas prestasi
* Jika anak gagal memukul bola (strike) beberapa kali selama
pertandingan (softball), tapi kemudian ia berhasil menangkap bola saat permainan
berlangsung, ia layak menerima pujian. Anda harus memuji ketahanan dan usahanya mendorong diri
untuk mampu melalui keadaan sulit.
* Jika anak tidak begitu baik dalam pelajaran
matematika, Anda bisa menyarankannya untuk terus berlatih, bukan malah memaksanya belajar
matematika sambil memarahinya setiap malam. Berikan pujian pada anak ketika ia melakukan hal
lain yang luar biasa.
* Putri Anda berhasil menaiki sepeda roda dua setelah ia
berlatih berminggu-minggu. Berikan pujian karena ia mampu bertahan dalam latihan.
Ketika anak berhasil melompat jauh saat sedang bermain, puji dia. Tapi jangan berlebihan karena
usahanya itu hanyalah sebatas untuk bersenang-senang.
Jika anak tidak melakukan upaya
khusus, jangan memujinya berlebihan atau Anda bisa tidak memujinya sama sekali. Para ahli juga
menyarankan agar para orangtua tidak memuji anak dengan memberikan uang tunai.
"Saya percaya setiap orangtua memuji adalah untuk memotivasi anaknya," kata
Donahue. "Jika Anda mengatakan kepada anak akan memberikannya uang jika ia mendapatkan
nilai A di pelajaran matematika, anak akan melakukannya atas dasar motivasi uang, bukan karena
positif ingin berhasil."
Berbeda dengan uang, Anda bisa merayakan kerja keras dan
prestasi anak dengan melakukan kegiatan yang mereka sukai. Misalnya, “Pergi makan es krim
atau atau menonton pertunjukan musik," kata Donahue.
Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard
Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.
The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.
In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.
Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.
Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.
The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.
In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.
“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”
Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.
The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.
“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.
The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.
Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.
Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.
At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.
Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.
In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.
Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.
“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.
The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.